Worldly Monarchs

Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) are best known for their annual migration in North America. But many people do not realize that Monarch butterflies are not just found in North America. These iconic butterflies can be seen around the world and form populations that do not migrate or that only migrate short distances.

Monarchs cluster together in colonies in a forest of Oyamel trees in Mexico. (Photo by Carol Pasternak. Used with permission.)

Monarchs thrive throughout Central and South America. They are residents in the islands of the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico and Cuba. Monarchs live in North Africa and migrate to the Canary Islands, the Azores, Madeira, Portugal, and Spain. Even on occasion a rare migrant can be found in the United Kingdom. They have also been seen in Bermuda, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, Ceylon, India and Nepal. Monarchs live year-round on the Hawai‘ian Islands as well as on other Pacific Islands. They are abound in New Zealand and Australia.

From Monarchs and Milkweed A Migrating Butterfly, a Poisonous Plant, and Their Remarkable Story of Coevolution by Anurag Agrawal. Click Here or on the photo to see more.

Scientists believe that the Monarch butterfly is originally from North America, but over the years they have made their way throughout the world colonizing new locations where they could find various species of Milkweeds for their host plants. For example, Gomphocarpus physocarpus, commonly known as Swan Plant, is a species of Milkweed native to southeast Africa, but it has been naturalized in New Zealand, most likely before the Monarchs arrived. Monarchs were probably knowingly or unknowingly transported on ships and then were able to find their host plants to survive.

Gomphocarpus physocarpus, commonly known as Balloonplant, Balloon Cotton-bush, Nailhead, or Swan Plant, is a species of Milkweed. The plant is native to southeast Africa, but it has been widely naturalized. The name “Balloonplant” is an allusion to the swelling bladder-like follicles which are full of seeds.

It’s possible that extreme weather events helped to relocate Monarchs. It is believed by some that Monarchs were carried to Australia from New Caledonia on cyclones. Once they arrived, they found MilkweedGomphocarpus physocarpusoriginally from South Africa, and the Asclepias Curassavica  from Central America that had become naturalized and the butterflies successfully established a breeding population.

The Monarch butterfly, also known as the Wanderer in Australia, makes limited migratory movements in cooler areas. It has only been present in Australia since about 1871.

Monarchs spread throughout much of the world in the 1800s. They were first seen in Hawai‘i in the 1840s, and spread throughout the South Pacific in the 1850s-60s. In the early 1870s, the first Monarchs were reported in Australia and New Zealand.

Monarch butterflies were first recorded in Tonga in 1863. It’s believed these butterflies were transported from Hawai‘i and adapted to eat Crown Flower (Calotropis gigantea).

Wherever they are found, Monarchs have become one of the best-known and favorite butterflies throughout the world.

Monarch flying over Tenerife in the Canary Islands. (Photo by Margot Leandro. Used with permission.)